This illness caused by parasites of the species Trypanosoma brucei that usually transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly and is most common in rural areas. There are two types of parasites that infect humans,
- Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (West African sleeping sickness) is found predominantly in central Africa and in limited areas of West Africa. This infection happend in Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Sudan, Central African Republic, Chad, and northern Uganda.This infection rarely imported to the US, and most cases have occurred in African nationals who have immigrated rather than in returning US travelers.

- Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (East African sleeping sickness) is found in focal areas of eastern and southeastern Africa. The infection occur in Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, and Zambia. Most cases of sleeping sickness imported into the US have been in travelers who were on safari in East Africa.

The symptoms of this disease : first stage, patients feel fever, headaches, rashes, and joint pain. These symptoms begin about one to three weeks after a person is bitten by the flies. A few weeks to a few months later, the second stage begins with signs of confusion, coordination of limb weakness, numbness and insomnia.

There is no cure or vaccine for this disease African trypanosomiasis. The act preventive is avoid to contact with tsetse flies, and here is the way:

- because the tsetse flies are attracted to bright or dark colors, then wear long-sleeved shirts and pants.

-  check your vehicles before entering, because the flies are interested  to the motion and dust from moving vehicles.

- Avoid the thicket (bushes)

-  Use insect repellent.

pic source :

source :