Diabetes ; a disease in which the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine.
Normal metabolism is also broken down in our intestines to turn into nutrients, the main fuel of the body, glucose (sugar). This glucose then passes from the bowel to the blood and the sugar level in the blood starts to rise. In healthy individuals, glucose that passes into the blood is transported into the cells with the help of the pancreas secreted insulin hormone. If the insulin hormone is not present in our bodies or if the effect is impaired, the sugar will not move into the cell, so the blood glucose level increases (hyperglycemia), which we refer to as diabetes. If this high blood sugar keeps going on constantly, it causes serious disorders in our organs (nerve, eye, heart, kidney etc.) over time.
People with diabetes can not use the sugar that is fed from the food, that is, glucose, and the blood sugar rises to hyperglycaemia. The emergence of diabetes is usually sudden and dramatic. Excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, and recurrent infections are common symptoms, especially in children, which may occur within a very short period of time (weeks or months).
Diabetes can cause very rapid and excessive weight loss (despite normal or over-consumption of food) and a feeling of never-tired fatigue. If you have a few of these symptoms, you should apply to your doctor. It is very important that diabetes is diagnosed without permanent damage to the body. For this reason, having knowledge about diabetes indication, causes and treatment has a vital value.
When a certain level of blood sugar passes, the urine begins to sow sugar. Frequent urination, excessive thirst and drinking a lot of water are seen with the increase of the amount of sugar in the head. Depending on insulin deficiency or insufficiency, cells can not use glucose; The energy required is provided by oils and proteins. The result is that the individual with diabetes is both weak and ketone (acetone) is formed in the urine.
A blood sugar level of a non-diabetic individual does not exceed 120 mg / dL in fasting state, and not more than 140 mg / dL in the case of toughness (two hours after starting food). The fact that the level of blood sugar measured on fasting or fasting is above these values indicates the presence of diabetes.
Blood sugar value is important after 2 hours of taking glucose-rich fluid. If the second hour blood glucose measurement is 140-199 mg / dL, then the secret sugar is 200 mg / dl or higher.
What is Type 1 Diabetes
People with Type 1 diabetes lack or do not have enough insulin production. For individuals with Type 1 diabetes, insulin is an indispensable medication for life. 5-10% of people with diabetes are this type of diabetes.
Type 1 causes of diabetes
-The problems that arise in the body's own defense system and result in destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing cells
What is Type 2 Diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin but can not use the produced insulin effectively in the target tissues. Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes; 90% of people with diabetes are type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 causes of diabetes
- Age (over 25 years)
- Development of diabetes during pregnancy
- Babies weighing more than 4.5 kg
What is Pre-Diabetes (Confidential Sugar)
If a person's blood sugar level is normally high but diabetes is not high enough to be diagnosed, the person is referred to as pre-diabetic (concealed diabetic).
Nutrition recommendations for diabetics
- Care must be taken to ensure adequate and balanced nutrition
- Individual body weight must be ensured and maintained,
- The meal should not be skipped,
- Pay attention to insulin and / or drug times and doses,
- Suggested physical activities (such as walking) should be shown carefully,
- Must stay away from smoking