Obesity is among the most important health problems of developed and developing countries today. Obesity is, in general, an excessive increase in the ratio of lean mass to fat mass in the body, which exceeds the desired level of body weight according to the resultant height.
In adult males, 15-18% of body weight and 20-25% in females constitute fat tissue. This ratio is 25 percent for men and 30 percent for women.
Nourishment as is known; It is an indispensable need for life that begins in the womb and continues until the end of life.
It is the ability of people to grow and develop, to take healthy and productive food items for a long time and to use them in the body in an adequate and balanced amount.
Satisfying your wife, suppressing hunger, not eating or drinking the things that your life will take.
In daily life, individuals (pregnant, pacifier, infant, school child, young, old, worker, athlete, cardiovascular, sugar, hypertension disorder, respiratory tract disorders etc.) age, sex, work done, genetic and physiological characteristics and disease There is a need for daily energy change depending on the situation.
In order to maintain a healthy life, the energy consumed and the energy consumed must be balanced. If the daily energy consumed is excessive, the unspent energy is stored as fat in the body and causes obesity.
HOW DOES OBESITY BE TREATED?
Various types of treatment methods such as diet, physical activity, behavioral therapy (nutrition model), drug treatment, combined treatment and surgical treatment are applied in the treatment of obesity. Most obese people want to lose weight quickly and easily. In reality, this is not easy. Therefore, realistic targets should be determined at the beginning of treatment. As a realistic goal, it is aimed to lose 5-10 pounds per 6 months. Even a 10 percent reduction in body weight can reduce obesity-related risk factors.
The methods used in obesity treatment are divided into 5 groups.
1. Medical nutrition (diet) treatment
Diet must be person-specific and moderate. The goal in diet treatment is to reduce the body fat deposits by creating energy deficit. Muscle and vital organs should be reduced without loss of cells, loss of vitamins, minerals and electrolytes should be prevented. In general, a 500-600 calorie restriction per day causes a weakening of 0.5 kg per week and 10 per cent in 6 months. In order to limit the total energy intake during the day, many obese meals are being skipped, but the hunger impulse then feeds more and the thermogenic effects of the foods are also diminishing. Therefore, it is important to eat frequent meals and suppress hunger feeling by dividing daily calories by 20-25% for breakfast, 30-35% for lunch and 30-35% for dinner.
Heart and respiratory controls must be performed before starting physical activity regimen. Initially 30-45 minutes a day, 3-5 days a week should be encouraged for moderate physical activity. 7 hours a week (420 minutes) quick walk to spend 2,000 calories per week
must do. It is also important to avoid trauma during physical activity. It is recommended that an overly obese person begin physical activity with simple exercises and gradually increase it. Before starting a new physical activity regime, it is absolutely necessary to make controls; Age of the patient, accompanying chronic diseases, symptoms should be assessed. Most obesity starts with walking because it is safe to exhaust. 3 days a week 10 min. Starts with walking. At least 5 days a week is increased to 30-45 min. It may also be useful to avoid using vehicles for places within walking distance, driving down an auto stop, using a ladder instead of an elevator, parking the car as far away as possible.
3. Behavior modification therapy
Alternative behavior development
4. Pharmacological treatment
Drugs to be used in obesity treatment are not suitable for individuals with mild to moderate weight gain. It is of great importance that the drugs used are determined to be reliable in health, have an appropriate effect on the aetiology causing obesity, have no significant side effects in the short and long term and should not be addicted, and that such drugs should be used for medical advice and control.
In order for obesity treatment to be successful, the patient must continue to receive medical treatment and exercise therapy as well as drug treatment and regularly check up.
The surgical approach to obesity is basically divided into two. The goal in reducing the energy intake of food in the bariatric surgery is to reduce the absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract