Hepatitis B is a serious infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). B virus is also commonly referred to as herpes B, monkey B virus, herpesvirus simiae, and herpesvirus B. The virus is found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys (also called crab-eating or long-tailed macaques). Infection with B virus is extremely rare in humans. When it does occur, the infection can result in severe brain damage or death if the patient is not treated soon after exposure. 

Hepatitis B can cause acute and chronic conditions in patients. If you've entered a chronic level, this disease could endanger the lives of sufferers. If not treated immediately, chronic hepatitis B pendertia risk of cirrhosis, liver cancer or liver failure.

Hepatitis B is difficult to identify because the symptoms are not immediately felt, and some even did not appear. For this reason, many people do not realize that he had been infected.

Symptoms associated with B virus infection include

  • Vesicular skin lesions (small blisters) at or near the site of exposure
  • Localized neurologic symptoms (pain, numbness, itching) near the wound site
  • Flu-like aches and pains
  • Fever and chills
  • Headaches lasting more than 24 hours
  • Fatigue
  • Muscular incoordination
  • Shortness of breath

 Some common symptoms of hepatitis B include:
 Loss of appetite.
 Nausea and vomiting.
 Pain in the lower abdomen.
 Jaundice(yellow fever) seen from the skin and the whites of the eyes turn yellow.
 Symptoms are similar to the common cold, such as fatigue, body pain, and headache.

While exposures that involve unpredictable, potentially aggressive animals are not completely preventable, adherence to appropriate laboratory and animal facility protocols will greatly reduce the risk of B virus transmission.

  • Work with B virus–susceptible monkeys should be done using humane restraint methods that reduce the potential for bites and scratches.
  • Proper personal protective equipment, including a lab coat, gloves, and a face shield, must be used when working with macaque monkeys.
  • Any bites, scratches, or exposure to the tissues or secretions of macaques must be cleansed immediately, as detailed in the Recommendations mentioned above.
  • Following B virus exposure, samples from both the exposed human and the implicated macaque should be sent for B virus diagnostic testing