In accordance with the pediatric surgery branch education given in Turkey; a pediatric surgeon performs for all surgical conditions arising in childhood era with regard to all the body systems save but, in general, neurosurgery, orthopedics surgery and cardiovascular surgery.  Besides, particulary for the new born era, pediatric surgeons also treat the congenital anomalies as in their area of interest. 

The Main Conditions and Problems Surgically Treated by the Pediatric Surgery are as Follows: 
The anomalies detected while in womb (respiratory system, kidneys-urinary tracts and bladder problems, genital area anomalies, diaphragm hernia, abdominal wall defects, some congenital tumors...) 
Anomalies detected in new born era (0-28  days) 
Respiratory system and lıng anomalies 
Esophagus anomalies 
Stomach and intestinal system anomalies 
Liver and biliary tract anomalies 
Kidney, urinary tract and bladder anomalies 
Abdominal wall formation anomalies 
Congenital tumors 
Babyhood problems (2-24 months) 
Congenital anomalies (respiratory system, stomach-intestine system, kidneys-urinary tracts and bladder problems, genital area anomalies)

Intestine bleeding 
Invagination (intestinal knot syndrome) 

Meckel diverticulum
Pyloric stenosis 
Biliary tract  obstructions 
Any frequent problem of any age 

Ingunial hernia 
Undescended testis 
Umbilical hernia 

Intestine obstructions 
Foreign material in respiratory system or stomach-intestine systems 
Specific problems 
Childhood era soli tumors 
Problems of secretion glands systems (endocrine) 
Problems specific to girls (womb and ovary problems) 

Reproduction system and urinary system anomalies (kidney outflow stenosis-uretero-pelvic stenosis, kidney reflux-vesicoureteral reflux, stone, displaced urinary meatus-hypospadia, epispadia, non-existing bladder frontal face-extrophy vesica, gender anomalies...) 

Esophagus problems (stomach reflux-gastro esophagal reflux) 
Stomach and chest wall anomalies (congenital non-existence of stomach muscles, collapsed chest wall, projecting chest wall) 
Haemengioma and lymphamgioma (problems related to veins and lymph system) 

Childhood era traumas (burns, falls, accidents, obtuse or penetrating traumas) 
Problems not requiring surgical methods in the first place
Constipation and anal fissure 
Repeating urinary tract infections  
Encopresis and urinary incontinence 
Repeating stomach pains 
Stomach and intestine endoscopies